Every year, around 200 people in Switzerland develop anal cancer (intestinal cancer), which is less than 1% of all cancers. About 70% of those affected are women, 30% men. 50% of patients are 50 to 69 years old at the time of diagnosis, another 40% are 70 or older.
Rectum and bowel exit
rectum (rectum) 2. intestinal outlet (anus, anus) 3. sphincter of the anus
Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)
A weakened immune system, eg in HIV infection or after transplantation
The first symptoms of anal cancer can be blood in the stool, skin changes, hardening, pain or itching in the anal area and the discharge of mucous secretions.
These symptoms also occur in other diseases. They should always be clarified by the doctor.
As a first examination, the doctor will palpate the anus with his finger, examine the anal canal with an endoscope and perform an ultrasound of the anal canal. Only after examining a tissue sample the diagnosis of anal cancer can definitely be made.
With a computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and an x-ray of the lung it is clarified whether the anal cancer has formed metastases.
The treatment of anal cancer is planned individually. It depends on the localization, the size of the tumor and whether lymph nodes are affected or metastases are present.
The possible treatments for anal cancer are:
A combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy