anal cancer-  risk factors – symptoms


anal cancer-  risk factors – symptoms

risk factors

Certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV)

A weakened immune system, eg in HIV infection or after transplantation


The first symptoms of anal cancer can be blood in the stool, skin changes, hardening, pain or itching in the anal area and the discharge of mucous secretions.

These symptoms also occur in other diseases. They should always be clarified by the doctor.


As a first examination, the doctor will palpate the anus with his finger, examine the anal canal with an endoscope and perform an ultrasound of the anal canal. Only after examining a tissue sample the diagnosis of anal cancer can definitely be made.

With a computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and an x-ray of the lung it is clarified whether the anal cancer has formed metastases.


The treatment of anal cancer is planned individually. It depends on the localization, the size of the tumor and whether lymph nodes are affected or metastases are present.

The possible treatments for anal cancer are:


A combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy

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