The structure of the skin

The structure of the skin

The structure of the skin, The skin is not only the largest organ of human beings, it is also the heaviest, with a weight of around 11 pounds on the skin, which is about 16% of body weight.

The skin protects the body from heat, light, injuries and infections. It regulates body temperature by sweating and can store water and fat. In addition, the vitamin D, which is particularly important for the bones, is formed in the skin.

The skin is optimally constructed for all these tasks. Similar to a Gore-Tex jacket, it provides protection but is also permeable at the same time. When looking at the skin under the microscope, three layers can be seen:

The structure of the skin

1. The upper skin

It is very thin – only 0.1 millimeters.

Their top layer consists of dead, keratinized cells, which form the first barrier for pollutants. The underlying germ layer provides supply for the horny layer and renews it approximately every four weeks. This includes basal cells that absorb nutrients and dispose of substances that the body no longer needs. In this basal cell layer are also star-shaped immune cells (Langerhans cells) as an outpost of body defense. Furthermore, the pigment-forming cells (melanocytes) are located in the upper layer. Their product, the dye melanin, gives the skin its hue.

2. The leather skin

With leather skin (dermis or corium) the connective tissue under the upper skin is called. The leather skin consists of various connective tissue fibers, which ensure that the skin remains stable, but at the same time also has sufficient elasticity. Because the elastic bevels from the age of 30 become less, the skin becomes increasingly slack.

Blood and lymphatic vessels are also embedded in the leather skin. The leather skin also houses the so-called skin attachments, such as hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands, and numerous nerve fibers for tactile and vibrational perception.

3. Subcutaneous fat tissue

The subcutaneous fat (subcutis) consists of connective tissue and fetal cells. It serves as cold protection and energy storage.